Horticulture Model Answers ( First Semester)

Table of Contents


Horticulture model answers for the students of first semester in given here.These answers related to horticulture will be very helpful to the beginners. These Questions and Answers from the topic horticulture is often asked in the semester examination…



Q-1) Explain the various methods of irrigation in horticultural crops?

ANS-1) They are as follows-

Method of Irrigation

There are different types of irrigation practised for improving crop yield. These types of irrigation systems are practised based on the different types of soils, climates, crops and resources. The main types of irrigation followed by farmers include:

Surface Irrigation

In this system, no irrigation pump is involved. Here, water is distributed across the land by gravity.

Localized Irrigation

In this system, water is applied to each plant through a network of pipes under low pressure.

Sprinkler Irrigation

Water is distributed from a central location by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or from sprinklers from the moving platform.

Drip Irrigation

In this type, drops of water are delivered near the roots of the plants. This type of irrigation is rarely used as it requires more maintenance.

Centre Pivot Irrigation

In this, the water is distributed by a sprinkler system moving in a circular pattern.

Sub Irrigation

Water is distributed through a system of pumping stations gates, ditches and canals by raising the water table.

Manual Irrigation

This a labour intensive and time-consuming system of irrigation. Here, the water is distributed through watering cans by manual labour.

Q-2) Define Horticulture, Enlist scope of horticulture and importance?

Ans-2) Horticulture: The word Horticulture is derived from the Latin word: Hortus and Colure meaning garden and to cultivate, respectively. Thus, Horticulture is branch of agriculture which is concerned with cultivation of garden crops.

scope of horticulture

  1. Diverse agro climatic condition.
  2. Better utilization of land.
  3. Availability of irrigation facilities.
  4. Availability of good transport facility
  5. Market of international repute.
  6. Availability of improved varieties


  1. As a source of variability in produce.
  2. As a source of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, flavour, aroma, alkaloids, oleoresins, fibre, etc.
  3. As a source of medicine.
  4. As an economic proposition as they give higher returns per unit area in terms of energy, money, job, etc.
  5. Employment generation 860 man days/annum for fruit crops as against 143 man days/annum for cereal crops and the crops like grapes, banana and pineapple need 1000- 2500 man days per annum.
  6. Effective utilization of waste land through hardy fruits and medicinal plants.
  7. As a substitute of family income being component of home garden.
  8. As a foreign exchange earner has higher share compare to agriculture crops.
  9. As an input for industry being amenable to processing, especially fruit and vegetable preservation industry.
  10. Aesthetic consideration and protection of environment.

Q-3) Enlist different climatic factors for growing fruit orchard and write in detail rainfall and light factors.

Ans-3) The different climatic factors for growing fruit orchard are-

  1. Temperature
  2. Atmospheric
  3. humidity
  4. Rainfall
  5. Wind
  6. Hail storm
  7. Light

1) Rainfall: The quantity of annual rainfall as well as its distribution plays and important role in the success or failure of fruit growing Excessive rain occurring in short period is generally unfavorable to fruits as it leads to water logging Rain at the blooming period may wash away the pollens and thereby inhibit pollination. In low rainfall regions, cultivation of fruit crops is difficult if adequate and cheap irrigation facilities are not available.

2) Light: Fruit exposed to light are found to be better in quality than those receiving less light. In santra it has been observed that the fruits borne on upper half of the tree and consequently receiving more light were found to be richer in vitamin C and sugar contents. Fruits exposed to strong sun light are high, as in vidarbha region the plant stem is likely to suffer from sun burn. In tropical region, the light is not such a problem, but in temperate region, care has to be taken that the trees receive good light for which it is necessary to train and prune the trees in a particular fashion.

Q-4) Define plant propagation. Write merits and demerits of asexual (vegetative) propagation?

Ans-4) Plant propagation: It is controlled reproduction of a plant by a man in order to perpetuate the individuals or group of individuals which have specific value to him.


  1. Progenies raised by asexual methods are generally true to type, uniform in yielding capacity and fruit quality.
  2. Asexually propagated plants come to fruiting early i.e. they have less juvenile period.
  3. Plants bearing seedless fruit or which are difficult to raise by sexual method can he propagated only by asexual means.e.g. Banana and pineapple
  4. Vegetative propagation makes it possible to convert inferior quality crown into superior quality.


  1. No new variety can be evolved by means of the vegetative method of propagation.
  2. Vegetative propagation in many cases is more expensive than seed propagation.
  3. Vegetatively propagated plants are comparatively short lived.
  4. Vegetatively propagated plants are comparatively less hardy.

Q-5) Define training. Enlist objectives of training. Explain any two methods of training.

Ans-5) Training:- Training is a relatively new practice in which tree growth directed in to a desired shape and form. Training young fruit tree is essential proper tree development.

Objective of training:-

  1. To admit more light and air in center of tree.
  2. To expose maximum leaf surfaces to sunlight.
  3. To control and regulate the shape of tree so that various cultural operations can be carried out easily.
  4. To develop strong frame work of the tree in order to protect the tree from strong winds.
  5. To remove the water shoots.
  6. To develop balance between vegetative and reproductive growth of tree.

Methods of training

1) Central leader system: In this training system, the main stem is allowed to grow unchecked. A central leader tree is characterized by one main, upright trunk, referred as the leader. The first branch is kept at 45 to 50 cm, height from ground level and other branches are allowed to grow on the main stem at 15 to 20cm distance. Branching generally begins on the leader 24 to 36 inches above the soil surface to allow movement under the tree. As the main stem groups certainly, the tree attains robust shape. Advantages of this system is development of strong crotches due to junction limbs and trunk however lower branches remains unproductive, fruit bearing on top portion creates problem in harvesting, trees prune to wind damage and this system is not suitable for high altitude an hot wind where there is high wind velocity eg. Sapota, Mango and Jamun.

2) Open center system:- In this system, the plants are de-headed when they attains height of 45 to 50cm. The tree has no main center or main stem but a series of well spaced and distributed all around the main stem. The tree attains less height. Advantages of this system i is better penetration of light to inner side of the tree i.e. at the center and all branches bears. fruiting and facilitate intercultural operation. However this system is not suitable for high altitude where frost is common e.g. Apple, Pear and peach.

3) Modified leader stem system:- This is a intermediate from of central leader and open center system and having benefits of both system. In this system. The main stem is allowed to grow for 4 to 5years and headed back at height of 100 to 120cm. The first branch is allowed to grow at 40cm height from ground level 4-5 branches located at distance of 15 16 20cm and placed all around the main stera. In this system due to moderate height of trees easy to carryout intercultural operation, all branches will bear the fruits and suitable for all regions.



Q-6) Write short notes on Medicinal and Aromatic plants ?

Ans-6) 1) Medicinal and aromatic plants:- The branch of horticultural science which with the cultivation of medicinal plants that provides drugs and aromatic crops which yields aromatic oils(essential oils). Medicinal plants such as opium deals chichona, senna, Sarpagandha etc. and aromatic plants like lemon grass. Citronella Vetiver, Geranium etc.

Q-7) Write short notes on Type of seed dormancy?

Ans) Types of seed dormancy: – Failure of the seed to germinate even though they are Placed in favorable conditions for germination are knows as seed dormancy. The seed germination is hampered due to various types of dormancies.

  1. Dormancy due to rudimentary embryo- Some plant shed their fruits before the seed has matured enough to germinate, such seeds do not germinate because of immature embryos.
  2. Seed coat dormancy- The seed fail to germinate due to present of hard seed coat which is impermeable to water and air.
  3. Dormancy due to physiologically dormant embryo or physiologically dormancy- It is common in the seeds of certain woody plants. The germination is regulated by inner tissue of seed such as embryo and endosperm
  4. Double dormancy- Some seed have both seed coat dormancy and embryo donnancy: such seeds require both scarification as well as stratification to overcome the dormancy.
  5. Secondary dormancy- Failure of seed to germinate due to expire to some unfavorable condition, such as high temperature or high moisture after stratification.

Q-8) Write short notes on Botanical classification of fruit crop?

Ans) Botanical classification of fruit crops: – Fruits are classified according to the botanical relationship, physiological characters of plant development, organization and structure, morphological and cytological similarities, place of origin and floral biology. These levels are kingdom, division, class, subclass, order, family, genus. species, variety and structure.

Fruits are coming from plant kingdom spermatophyta and division angiospermae. It is further divided into two class Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon

Q-9) What is kitchen garden? Enlist the advantages of kitchen gardening and explain in details design of kitchen garden?

Ans-7) Kitchen gardening is the growing of vegetable around the residential houses to meet the requirement of the family all the year round.

Advantages of kitchen garden are as below

  1. Kitchen garden supplies daily fresh vegetable throughout the year to family member.
  2. This gives exercise and recreation to family member particularly pensioner.
  3. This gives education to small children about plant life while working with plant.
  4. Kitchen garden reduces the cost and time on purchasing the vegetables from market.
  5. The vegetables from kitchen gardens supplies nutrients, vitamins and proteins kept the healthy to family member.

Design of kitchen garden

  1. In most cases there is a limited choice for the selection of the site for a kitchen garden. The land is selected usually in the backyard of the house, where possibly a rectangular piece of land rather than square is preferable.
  2. The layout should be such as to make a garden look attractive and allow access to all parts. As various kinds of vegetables will be grown in different parts of the year, the land will have to be laid out in small plots with narrow paths and borders.
  3. In homes where no space is available one can grow vegetables in pot or boxes. But preference should be given to such vegetables which produce more numbers of fruits from individual plant, i.e. tomato, brinjal, chillies and cucurbits.
  4. One or two compost pits can be dug in the corner of the garden.
  5. The quick growing fruit trees, papaya banana and kagzi lime should be located on north side of the garden so that they may not shade the other crops.
  6. Climbing type vegetables like cucurbits, peas can be trained on the fences or wall.
  7. Several sowing or a succession of sowing of one particular crop of short intervals should be done to ensure a steady of vegetables.
  8. The ridges which separate the beds should be utilized for growing root crop like radish, turnip, beet and carrot.
  9. Early maturing crops should be planted together in continues row so that the areas may available at once for putting late crops.
  10. The inter spaces of sum crops which are slow growing and take long duration to mature like cabbage, cauliflower, brinjal should be used for growing for quick growing crops like radish, turnip, palak and lettuce.

Q-10)  What is lawn? Explain in detail the planting methods of lawn?

Ans-8) Lawn can be defined as the green carpet for landscape.Its methods are-

  1. Seed sowing method: The quality seed is essential. Doob grass seed is very light. hence proper care is needed. Soil surface is scratched to depth 2.5cm. Total area of garden is divided in to equal parts of 200 to300 sq.mt Seed rate is 500gm/200sq.ml Seed is mixed with double quantity of fine soil and broadcasted. Seed is mixed in the soil with raking of opposite direction. Watering is done at regular intervals. After germination, when grass becomes 5cm tall, it is clipped with garden shears.

2)Dibbling method : Well matured uprooted grass cuttings are prepared from lawn or nursery or by lawns scraping. Grass growing in shed having internodes for apart is not suitable. In case of non availability of short node grass, underground stems are used. Watering is done at regular intervals. The lawn will be ready within four months by this method.

3) Turfing method: Quickest method of lawn development. Cost is high. Turf is a piece of earth of about Sem thickness with grass thickly grown over it. The pieces are made, of small squares or in rolls. The turf must be free of weeds.

4) Turf plastering : A paste is prepared mixing the garden soil, fresh cow dung and water. Bits of chopped-up fresh roots and stem or rhizomes of doob grass are mixed with this paste and paste spread evenly on the surface of the prepared land after moistening the soil. The pest is then covered by spreading 2cm dry soil. Watering is given at regular intervals. Method is not suitable for dry and variable climate area.


Q-11) What is seed? Write differences between hypogeal and epigeal germination.

Ans-)A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.

Epigeal germination refers to the germination of a plant that takes place above the ground while hypogeal germination refers to the germination of a plant that takes place below the ground. 

Q-12) Define unfruitfulness and elaborate its various causes?

Ans) Unfruitfulness is a major problem in many fruit crops and their varieties result in huge loss to growers and make fruit cultivation less profitable. Unfruitfulness in fruit crops refers to the state where the plant is not capable of flowering and bearing fruit.


External factors such as nutrition, pruning, water supply, rootstock used, temperature, insect pests and diseases and The internal factors such as Impotency, Incompatibility, and embryo abortion.

1) Sterility: A land is said to be self sterile if it does not fruit with its pollen. Often many varieties of fruits are partially self sterile giving a poor fruit set with their own pollen. Some varieties do not set fruit only with their own pollens but also with the pollens of several other varieties. They are said to be besides being self sterile, cross sterile in respect of those varieties. They will set the fruits with the pollens of certain other varieties which supply them compatible pollens. Such varieties can fruit only when compatible pollens are available in the vicinity.

2) Hybrid Condition: Hybrid between distantly related from are sometimes to produced self sterility.

3) Incompability: In several deciduous fruits, the pollen of some varieties are in capable of fertilizing the flowers of certain other varieties or of the some variety.

Q-13) What is the objective of pruning?

Ans-) They are –

  • To control flowering and fruiting.
  • To augment production in plants which bear on new shoots.
  • To obtain regular bearing.
  • To remove diseased, damaged, insect infested and weak shoots.
  • To thin out flowers and fruits.
  • To ensure access to sunlight to bearing shoots.
  • To invigorate the plants.
  • To have a balance between vegetative and reproductive growth.

Q-14) What are the Agroclimatic zones of Chhattisgarh?

Ans) The state of Chhattisgarh is divided into three major agro-climatic zone namely Chhattisgarh Plains (CP), Northern Hills Zone (NHZ), and Bastar Plateau (BP).Covering 51.0%, 28.0% and 21.0% of the geographical area, respectively. The location of the state is such that it is close to the Bay of Bengal, which is instrumental in bringing monsoon in the Southern side of the country. The cropping intensity of the state is about 135%.

Q-15) What is role of auxin in plant growth?

Ans-) Auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development, orchestrating cell division, elongation and differentiation, embryonic development, root and stem tropisms, apical dominance, and transition to flowering


I hope that you find Horticulture model answers helpful for the students of first semester. For more related notes and question answer for fundamentals of horticulture click here

Horticulture model answers