Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step


Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| Step by Step. Are you looking for step by step mushroom farming. As you know it is one of the most profitable agribusinesses in India, and it can be started with little money and space. Mushroom farming is gradually becoming a viable alternative source of income in India.

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,Profit| Step By Step

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step

For thousands of years, mushrooms have been valued as both food and medicine all over the world. They’re a good source of nutrition that’s low in fat and mostly made up of unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. As a result, mushrooms are thought to be the best food for keeping a healthy heart and cardiovascular system.

Types of Mushrooms

The three most common types of mushrooms grown in India are button mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, and paddy straw mushrooms. Paddy straw mushrooms can grow in temperatures as low as 35°C and as high as 40°C. On the other hand, oyster mushrooms grow in the northern plains, while button mushrooms grow in the winter. All of these commercially important mushrooms are grown using various methods and techniques. Mushrooms are grown in compost beds, which are special beds for growing mushrooms.

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,Profit| Step By Step

Step by step method to grow Button mushroom

Step-1) Preparation of Compost

Composting in the open is the first step in growing mushrooms. On clean, raised concrete platforms, a compost yard for button mushroom farming is prepared. They should be elevated to prevent excess water from collecting at the heap. Even if the composting is done outside, it should be covered to protect it from rain. There are two types of compost that can be made: natural compost and synthetic compost. The compost is made in trays that are 100 x 50 x 15 cm in size.

  1. Natural compost : Horse dung, poultry manure, wheat straw, and gypsum are all needed in this recipe. Wheat straw should be finely sliced. It’s not a good idea to mix horse dung with that of other animals. It must be fresh and not have been exposed to rain. The ingredients are uniformly spread on the composting yard after they have been mixed. To wet the straws, water is sprayed on the surface. For synthetic manure, it is heaped and turned in this manner. The temperature of the heap rises as a result of fermentation, and it emits an odour as ammonia escapes. This indicates that the compost has begun to open. Every three days, the heap is turned over and watered.

2.Synthetic compost: Wheat straw, bran, urea, calcium ammonium nitrate / ammonium sulphate, and gypsum are all ingredients in synthetic compost. The straw should be cut to a length of 8 to 20 cm. It is then evenly spread across the composting yard to form a thin layer. After that, it is thoroughly soaked by sprinkling water. Blend all other ingredients, such as urea, bran, gypsum, and calcium nitrate, with the wet straw and mound them into a pile.

Step-2: Filling Trays with Compost

The compost that has been prepared is a dark brown colour. When you’re filling the trays with compost, it shouldn’t be too wet or too dry. Spray a few drops of water on the compost if it is dry. Allow some water to evaporate if the area is too wet. The size of the trays used to spread the compost could be adjusted to suit your needs. It must, however, be 15 to 18 cm deep. Make sure the trays are made of softwood as well. The trays must be completely filled with compost and levelled on top.

Step-3: Spawning

The process of sowing mushroom mycelium into the beds is known as spawning. The spawns can be purchased at a low cost from accredited national laboratories. Spawning can be accomplished in two ways: scattering compost on the tray’s bed surface or mixing grain spawn with compost before filling the trays. Cover the trays with old newspapers after they’ve spawned. To keep the sheet moist and humid, a small amount of water is sprinkled on it. Between the top tray and the ceiling, there must be at least 1 metre of headspace.

Method of spawning

1.Double layer spawning: This method of spawning involves two phases of spawning. When the beds are half-filled with compost, the first stage will be completed by separating the spawn on the beds, and then the containers will be completely filled. The spawn will be gently pressed, and the containers will be covered with newspaper sheets.

2.Top layer spawning: In this method of spawning, the spawn is planted on the surface after the container has been filled to the brim with compost. Following that, a very thin layer of compost is strewn across the spawn. When the compost is much wetter, this top layer spawning is preferred.

3.Through spawning:The grains in the spawn will be mixed all over the compost during spawning.

4.Shake up spawning: In this type of spawning, the compost is shaken and replaced in containers after seven days of spawning is completed. After a few days, the casing is completed.

5.Spot Spawning: Sticks that can be used as pointers are used to keep the grain spawn at a specific distance in the holes. In order for the mycelium to develop quickly, special care must be taken to ensure that the inoculum is in clear contact with the compost that surrounds it.

The following are the environmental conditions required for a successful spawn-run rate:

  1. The compost should be kept at a temperature of around 25°C.
  2. To prevent the compost from drying out, the relative humidity should be very high.
  3. The spawn that is taken directly from the growing room grows faster than the spawn that is kept at 3°C.


Casing soil is made by mixing rotten cow dung with garden soil that has been finely crushed and sieved. The pH should be slightly alkaline. When the casing soil is ready, it must be sterilised to kill pests, nematodes, insects, and other moulds. Sterilization can be accomplished by steaming or using a formalin solution. The temperature is kept at 250°C for 72 hours after the casing soil is spread on the compost, then lowered to 180°C. Keep in mind that the casing stage necessitates a lot of fresh air. As a result, during the casing stage, the room must have adequate ventilation.Casing soil can be made from a variety of ingredients, including:

  • Soil and peat mixture in the ratio of 2:1.
  • Sand and soil mixture in a ratio of 1:2.
  • Cow dung which is rotten well can be combined with soil which is light at the ratio of 3:1.

Step-5: Cropping

The pinheads start to show up after 15 to 20 days in the casing. Within 5 to 6 days of reaching this stage, white, small buttons begin to appear. When the caps are tight on the short stem, mushrooms are ready to harvest.

Step-6: Harvesting

The cap should be gently twisted off during harvesting. To do so, gently hold it between your forefingers, press it against the soil, and then twist it off. Chopping off the base of the stalk where mycelial threads and soil particles cling should be done.

  1. The mushroom will be injected into the fruit as soon as the mycelium reaches the casing surface by lowering the temperature of the air to 18°C and lowering the carbon dioxide concentration in the air to 1200 ppm.
  2. To keep the humidity at 75 percent, a fine mist of water should be sprayed on the casing.
  3. In and around the container, air circulation is required. Humidity should not be exceeded because it raises CO2 concentrations.
  4. Mushroom fruiting will occur in well-defined breaks. After 21 days of casing, the first break occurs, and the process repeats every week. To get to the stage of the button from the pinheads, it would take about a week.
  5. The casing soil becomes distracted, resulting in the formation of hard pans on the casing surface and a reduction in oxygen supply. Mushrooms are picked up by twisting the mushroom’s head in both clockwise and anti-clockwise directions.

Step:7 Marketing of Mushroom:

Mushrooms will be sold fresh or freeze-dried, depending on their state. A fresh mushroom is packaged in low-density polyethylene bags before being sold in the market. The mushroom has a shelf life of approximately 48 hours. The freeze-dried mushrooms will last almost a year, but the technology used to freeze-dry the mushrooms is expensive.

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step

Step by step method to grow Oyster mushroom

Where the climatic conditions are unsuitable for button mushrooms, oyster mushrooms are grown. It’s the easiest to grow and the most delectable to eat. Because of its low fat content, it is frequently recommended for patients with obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Oyster mushrooms can grow for 6 to 8 months at a moderate temperature of 20 to 300 degrees Celsius and a humidity of 55 to 70%. It can also be grown during the summer by providing the additional humidity required for its growth. The best growing season in hilly areas is from March or April to September or October, while the best growing season in lower regions is from September or October to March or April.

The cultivation of oyster mushrooms can be broken down into the four steps below:

  1. Preparation or procurement of spawn
  2. Substrate preparation
  3. Spawning of substrate
  4. Crop management
  1. Preparation or procurement of spawn:

For inoculation on sterilised substrate, a pure culture of Pleurotus sp. is required. On cereal grains, mycelial growth takes 10-15 days. Jowar and bajra grains have been said to be superior to wheat grains.

2.Substrate preparation:

Oyster mushrooms can be grown on a variety of agro-wastes that contain cellulose and lignin, which aids in cellulose enzyme production, which is linked to increased yield. Paddy, wheat, and ragi straw, maize stalks and leaves, millets, and cotton waste, used citronella leaf, sugarcane bagasse, saw dust, jute, and cotton waste, dehulled corncobs, pea nut shells, dried grasses, sunflower stalks, used tea leaf waste, discarded waste paper, and synthetic compost of button mushrooms are just a few examples. Paper mill sludges, coffee byproducts, tobacco waste, apple pomace, and other industrial wastes can also be used to grow it.

3.  Spawning of Substrate:

Grain spawn that has been freshly prepared (20-30 days) is best for spawning. Due to mycelium aggregation, old spawn (3-6 months) stored at room temperature (at 20-300 C) forms a very thick mat-like structure, and sometimes young pinheads and fruit bodies begin to develop in the spawn bottle itself. The spawning should take place in a room that has been pre-fumigated (48hrs.with 2 percent formaldehyde).

4.Crop Management:

For mycelium colonisation of the substrate, spawned bags, trays, or boxes are placed on raised platforms or shelves in a dark cropping room. Although mycelium can grow at temperatures ranging from 10 to 330 degrees Celsius, the ideal temperature for spawn running is between 22 and 260 degrees Celsius.

The fungus is ready to fruit once the mycelium has colonised the substrate completely. Mold-infested bags should be discarded, while bags with patchy mycelial growth should be left for a few days longer to complete mycelial growth. The crop is susceptible to fungi.

Several competitor moulds, such as Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Rhizopus sp., have been found in the cultivation substrate. Spraying with Bavistin or Benomyl is a good way to keep things under control.

Step By Step Mushroom Farming |Cost,Income,profit| Project Report

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step

Step by step method to grow Paddy straw mushroom

Paddy straw mushroom is grown in Asia’s south-east. Because of its flavour, it is one of the most popular mushrooms. They are grown on raised platforms in the shade or in well-ventilated rooms, unlike button mushrooms.

  1. Spawning: Paddy straw mushrooms grow on soaked, chopped paddy straws. They can sometimes be found spawning on cereal grains or millets. They’re called straw spawn when they’re spawned on paddy straw, and grain spawn when they’re spawned on cereal grains.

2.Preparation of bed: Because the mushrooms are grown on raised platforms, the brick and soil foundations should also be elevated. The size should be slightly larger than the bedding and strong enough to support the bed’s weight. On top of the foundation, a bamboo frame the same size as the foundation is placed. At least four bundles of soaked straw are placed on the frame. There are four more bundles, but this time the loose ends are facing the wrong way. The first layer of bedding is made up of these eight bundles. The grain spawn is scattered about 12 cm away from the first layer.

3.Mushrooming: Mushrooms usually start growing within 10 to 15 days of spawning. For the next ten days, they will continue to grow. The crop is ready to harvest once the volva erupts and the mushroom inside is exposed. Because these mushrooms are so delicate, they have a very short shelf life and must be consumed right away.

Step By Step Mushroom Farming |Cost,Income,profit| Project Report

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step


  1. Expenses incurred in mushroom farming for the construction of rooms:

If we build two rooms that are 10 X 10 feet in size, we will need to spend around Rs. 30, 000 to purchase all of the materials needed for the construction of the rooms, such as cement, iron, and other materials, as well as labour costs.

2.In a mushroom unit, the cost of racks:

The cost of 6 X 12 X 6 size racks is Rs. 500 each, so the total cost should be around Rs. 5,000.

3.Drums cost:

We’ll need at least one drum in the production unit, which could cost up to Rs. 500.

4.Cost of gunny bags:

Each gunny bag costs an average of Rs. 33. We’ll need about 30 gunny bags. As a result, the price of these gunny bags can range from Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 2,000 on average.

5.Grasscutter cost:

To cut the grass into pieces, only one grass cutter is required. A grass cutter will set you back Rs. 1000.

6.Cost of boiling vessel:

To boil the grass, we’ll need a vessel. Farmers will have to spend Rs. 500 to purchase this boiling vessel.

7) Cost of hay:

Hay is required for mushroom growth. A total of 500 kilogrammes is required. A kilogramme of hay costs Rs. 02 in India. So, to buy 500 kilogrammes of hay, the farmer will need Rs.1000.

8) Polythene bags cost:

Poly bags are used to fill spawn in mushroom cultivation. So 500 polythene bags should suffice. As a result, buying 500 polybags costs Rs. 100.

9) Cost of labor, electricity, and irrigation:

All of these activities in mushroom cultivation should cost approximately Rs. 2000.

10) Miscellaneous costs incurred in mushroom production unit:

Miscellaneous costs in mushroom cultivation can reach Rs. 200.

Total cost incurred in Mushroom cultivation

It includes the total cost of room construction as well as money spent on purchasing different materials that can be used in the long run, as well as production costs. We can harvest an average of nine crops per year because oyster mushroom cultivation is not possible during the summer months. As we grow 9 crops in a year, the production cost of each crop is Rs. 7,500. The annual production costs will be Rs. 7500 x 9 = Rs. 67,500. Hence, the total cost of cultivation is = Rs. 40, 300 + Rs. 67, 500 = Rs. 1, 07, 800 So, the total cost of production of oyster cultivation in a year is Rs. 1, 07, 800

Mushroom cultivation’s total revenue

On average, a kilogramme of oyster mushroom sells for Rs. 120 in the market. So, if the average yield per crop is 500 kilogrammes, the total yield for nine crops is 9 x 500 = 4,500. Farmers will receive Rs.5,40,000 for selling 4,500 kilogrammes of mushrooms in this manner.As a result, by cultivating oyster mushrooms in two rooms measuring 10 x 10 feet, the farmer will earn a gross profit of Rs. 5,40,000 per year.

Net profit involved in mushroom cultivation

It can be obtained by subtracting the total cost of production from gross returns

Rs. 5, 40, 000 – Rs. 1, 07, 800 = Rs. 4, 32, 200

Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step


It is clear from reading all of the preceding content that mushroom cultivation provides excellent returns to farmers. With the exception of the summer months, we can grow mushrooms all year long at a low cost of production. As a result, mushroom cultivation can be described as highly profitable and suitable for farmers with small landholdings. I hope you enjoyed reading the article, and please don’t hesitate to leave a comment or make a suggestion about commercial mushroom cultivation revenue, costs, and net profits. I hope you got all yours answers by reading this article Mushroom Farming | Project Report |Cost,Income,profit| step by Step